This very common horror character comes from Asian culture, where dead women and ghosts are portrayed as having long black hair that covers their faces.
Read this interesting article which further explains the use of these kind of ghosts: Link to article
Ringu (1998)/The Ring (2002)
Ju-on (2002)/The Grudge (2004)
Honogurai mizu no soko kara (2002)/Dark Water (2005)